Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a mental illness that brings
severe high and low moods and changes in sleep, energy, thinking, and behavior.
People who have bipolar disorder can have periods in which they feel overly happy and energized and other periods of feeling very sad, hopeless, and sluggish. In between those periods, they usually feel normal. You can think of the highs and the lows as two "poles" of mood, which is why it's called "bipolar" disorder.
?What Are the Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder
In bipolar disorder, the dramatic episodes of high and low moods do not follow a set pattern. Someone may feel the same mood state (depressed or manic) several times before switching to the opposite mood. These episodes can happen over a period of weeks, months, and sometimes even years.
How severe it gets differs from person to person and can also change over time, becoming more or less severe.
Symptoms of mania ("the highs"):
Excessive happiness, hopefulness, and excitement
Sudden changes from being joyful to being irritable, angry, and hostile
Rapid speech and poor concentration
Increased energy and less need for sleep
Unusually high sex drive
Making grand and unrealistic plans
Showing poor judgment
Drug and alcohol abuse
Becoming more impulsive
During depressive periods ("the lows"), a person with bipolar disorder may have:
Loss of energy
Feelings of hopelessness or worthlessness
Not enjoying things they once liked
Trouble making decisions
Needing more sleep
Appetite changes that make them lose or gain weight
Thoughts of death or suicide